Taxing - Departure - Inflight and Landing Vortices

Avoiding Wake Turbulence

Wingtip vortices are greatest when the generating aircraft  is “heavy, clean, and slow.” This  condition is
most commonly encountered during approaches or departures because an aircraft’s Angle of Attack (AOA) is
at the highest to produce the lift necessary to land or take off. To minimize the chances of flying through an
aircraft’s wake turbulence:

Avoid flying through another aircraft’s flight path.

A hovering  helicopter  generates  a  down wash  from its  main  rotor(s) similar  to the vortices of an airplane.
Pilots of  small  aircraft  should  avoid a hovering helicopter by at least three rotor disc diameters to avoid the
effects of this down wash. In forward flight this energy is transformed into a pair of strong, high-speed trailing
vortices  similar  to  wing - tip vortices  of  larger  fixed - wing  aircraft. Helicopter  vortices  should be avoided
because  helicopter  forward flight airspeeds are often very slow and can generate exceptionally strong wake

Avoid following another aircraft on a similar flight path at an altitude within 1,000 feet.

Approach the runway above a preceding aircraft’s path when landing behind another aircraft, and touch down after the point at which the other aircraft wheels contacted the runway.

Rotate prior to the point at which the preceding aircraft rotated, when taking off behind another aircraft.