A/FD
(See AIRPORT/FACILITY DIRECTORY.)

AAI
(See ARRIVAL AIRCRAFT INTERVAL.)

AAR
(See AIRPORT ARRIVAL RATE.)

ABBREVIATED IFR FLIGHT PLANS
An authorization by ATC requiring pilots to submit only that information needed for the purpose of ATC. It includes only a small portion of the usual IFR flight plan information. In certain instances, this may be only aircraft identification, location, and pilot request. Other information may be requested if needed by ATC for separation/control purposes. It is frequently used by aircraft which are airborne and desire an instrument approach or by aircraft which are on the ground and desire a climb to VFR-on-top. (See VFR-ON-TOP.) (Refer to AIM.)

ABEAM
An aircraft is “abeam” a fix, point, or object when that fix, point, or object is approximately 90 degrees to the right or left of the aircraft track. Abeam indicates a general position rather than a precise point.

ABORT
To terminate an operation prematurely when it is seen that the desired result will not occur.

ABORTED TAKEOFF
To terminate a planned takeoff when it is determined that some condition exists which makes takeoffor further flight dangerous.

ABOVE GROUND LEVEL (AGL)
The actual height above ground level (AGL) at which the aircraft is flying.

ABRAM VOR SAY ALTITUDE
Used by ATC to ascertain an aircrafts specific altitude/flight level. When the aircraft is climbing or descending, the pilot should state the indicated altitude rounded to the nearest 100 feet.

ABSOLUTE ACCURACY
The ability to determine present position in space independently, and is most often used by pilots.

ABSOLUTE ALTITUDE
The actual distance an object is above the ground.

ABSOLUTE PRESSURE
Pressure measured from the reference of zero pressure, or a vacuum.

ABSTRACTIONS
Words that are general rather than specific. Aircraft is an abstraction; airplane is less abstract; jet is more specific; and jet airliner is still more specific.


AC
Alternating current.

ACCELERATE-GO DISTANCE
The distance required to accelerate to V1 with all engines at takeoff power, experience an engine failure at V1, and continue the takeoff on the remaining engine(s). The runway required includes the distance required to climb to 35 feet by which time V2 speed must be attained.

ACCELERATE-STOP DISTANCE
The distance required to accelerate to V1 with all engines at takeoff power, experience an engine failure at V1, and abort the takeoff and bring the airplane to a stop using braking action only (use of thrust reversing is not considered).

ACCELERATE-STOP DISTANCE AVAILABLE
The runway plus stopway length declared available and suitable for the acceleration and deceleration of an airplane aborting a takeoff

ACCELERATE-STOP DISTANCE AVAILABLE [ICAO]
The length of the take-off run available plus the length of the stopway if provided.

ACCELERATION
Force involved in overcoming inertia, and which may be defined as a change in velocity per unit of time.

ACCELERATION ERROR
A magnetic compass error apparent when the aircraft accelerates while flying on an easterly or westerly heading, causing the compass card to rotate toward North.

ACCELEROMETER
A part of an inertial navigation system (INS) that accurately measures the force of acceleration in one direction.

ACCIDENT
An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and all such persons have disembarked, and in which any person suffers death or serious injury, or in which the aircraft receives substantial damage. (NTSB 830.2)

ACDO
(See AIR CARRIER DISTRICT OFFICE.)

ACKNOWLEDGE
Let me know that you have received and understood this message.

ACL
(See AIRCRAFT LIST.)

ACLS
(See AUTOMATIC CARRIER LANDING SYSTEM.)

ACLT
(See ACTUAL CALCULATED LANDING TIME.)
ACROBATIC FLIGHT
An intentional maneuver involving an abrupt change in an aircraft’s attitude, an abnormal attitude, or abnormal acceleration not necessary for normal flight. (See ICAO term ACROBATIC FLIGHT.) (Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)

ACROBATIC FLIGHT [ICAO]
Maneuvers intentionally performed by an aircraft involving an abrupt change in its attitude, an abnormal attitude, or an abnormal variation in speed.

ACTIVE RUNWAY
(See RUNWAY IN USE/ACTIVE RUNWAY/DUTY RUNWAY.)

ACTUAL CALCULATED LANDING TIME
ACLT is a flight’s frozen calculated landing time. An actual time determined at freeze calculated landing time (FCLT) or meter list display interval (MLDI) for the adapted vertex for each arrival aircraft based upon runway configuration, airport acceptance rate, airport arrival delay period, and other metered arrival aircraft. This time is either the vertex time of arrival (VTA) of the aircraft or the tentative calculated landing time (TCLT)/ACLT of the previous aircraft plus the arrival aircraft interval (AAI), whichever is later. This time will not be updated in response to the aircraft’s progress.

ACTUAL NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE (ANP)
(See REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE.)

AD
See Airworthiness Directive.

ADC
See air data computer.

ADDITIONAL SERVICES
Advisory information provided by ATC which includes but is not limited to the following: a. Traffic advisories. b. Vectors, when requested by the pilot, to assist aircraft receiving traffic advisories to avoid observed traffic. c. Altitude deviation information of 300 feet or more from an assigned altitude as observed on a verified (reading correctly) automatic altitude readout (Mode C). d. Advisories that traffic is no longer a factor. Pilot/Controller Glossary 7/24/14

ADF
(See AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER.)

ADI
See attitude director indicator.

ADIABATIC COOLING
A process of cooling the air through expansion. For example, as air moves up slope it expands with the reduction of atmospheric pressure and cools as it expands.

ADIABATIC HEATING
A process of heating dry air through compression. For example, as air moves down a slope it is compressed, which results in an increase in temperature.

ADIABATIC PROCESS
In weather, the change of the temperature of air without transferring heat. In the adiabatic process, compression of the air mass results in the warming of the air; conversely, the expansion of the air mass results in cooling of the air.

ADIZ
(See AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE.)

ADJUSTABLE STABILIZER
A stabilizer that can be adjusted in flight to trim the airplane, thereby allowing the airplane to fly hands-off at any given airspeed.

ADJUSTABLE-PITCH PROPELLER
A propeller with blades whose pitch can be adjusted on the ground with the engine not running, but which cannot be adjusted in flight. Also referred to as a ground adjustable propeller. Sometimes also used to refer to constant-speed propellers that are adjustable in flight.

ADLY
(See ARRIVAL DELAY.)

ADLY (SEE ARRIVAL DELAY) ADMINISTRATOR
The Federal Aviation Administrator or any person to whom he/she has delegated his/her authority in the matter concerned.

ADM
See aeronautical decision-making.

ADMINISTRATOR
The Federal Aviation Administrator or any person to whom he/she has delegated his/her authority in the matter concerned.
ADR
(See AIRPORT DEPARTURE RATE.)

ADS
(See AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE BROADCAST.)

ADS [ICAO]
(See ICAO term AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE.)

ADS-B
(See AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE-BROADCAST.)

ADS-C
(See AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE-CONTRACT.)

ADVANCING BLADE
The blade moving in the same direction as the helicopter or gyroplane. In rotorcraft that have counterclockwise main rotor blade rotation as viewed from above, the advancing blade is in the right half of the rotor disc area during forward movement.

ADVECTION
The horizontal transport of atmospheric properties, by wind motion.

ADVECTION FOG
Fog resulting from the movement of warm, humid air over a cold surface.

ADVERSE YAW
A condition of flight in which the nose of an airplane tends to yaw toward the outside of the turn. This is caused by the higher induced drag on the outside wing, which is also producing more lift. Induced drag is a by-product of the lift associated with the outside wing.

ADVISE INTENTIONS
Tell me what you plan to do.

ADVISORY
Advice and information provided to assist pilots in the safe conduct of flight and aircraft movement. (See ADVISORY SERVICE.)

ADVISORY AREA
The area within ten miles of an airport without a control tower or where the tower is not in operation, and on which a Flight Service Station is located. (See LOCAL AIRPORT ADVISORY.) (Refer to AIM.)

ADVISORY CIRCULAR (AC)
An FAA publication that informs the aviation public, in a systematic way, of nonregulatory material.

ADVISORY FREQUENCY
The appropriate frequency to be used for Airport Advisory Service. (See LOCAL AIRPORT ADVISORY.) (See UNICOM.) (Refer to ADVISORY CIRCULAR NO. 90-42.) (Refer to AIM.)

ADVISORY SERVICE
Advice and information provided by a facility to assist pilots in the safe conduct of flight and aircraft movement. (See ADDITIONAL SERVICES.) (See EN ROUTE FLIGHT ADVISORY SERVICE.) (See LOCAL AIRPORT ADVISORY.) (See RADAR ADVISORY.) (See SAFETY ALERT.) (See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.) (Refer to AIM.)

AERIAL REFUELING
A procedure used by the military to transfer fuel from one aircraft to another during flight. (Refer to VFR/IFR Wall Planning Charts.)

AERODROME
A defined area on land or water (including any buildings, installations and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure, and movement of aircraft.

AERODROME BEACON [ICAO]
Aeronautical beacon used to indicate the location of an aerodrome from the air.

AERODROME CONTROL SERVICE [ICAO]
Air traffic control service for aerodrome traffic.

AERODROME CONTROL TOWER [ICAO]
A unit established to provide air traffic control service to aerodrome traffic.

AERODROME ELEVATION [ICAO]
The elevation of the highest point of the landing area.

AERODROME TRAFFIC CIRCUIT [ICAO]
The specified path to be flown by aircraft operating in the vicinity of an aerodrome.

AERODYNAMICS
The science of the action of air on an object, and with the motion of air on other gases. Aerodynamics deals with the production of lift by the aircraft, the relative wind, and the atmosphere.

AERONAUT
A person who operates or travels in a balloon or airship.

AERONAUTICAL BEACON
A visual NAVAID displaying flashes of white and/or colored light to indicate the location of an airport, a heliport, a landmark, a certain point of a Federal airway in mountainous terrain, or an obstruction. (See AIRPORT ROTATING BEACON.) (Refer to AIM.)

AERONAUTICAL CHART
A map used in air navigation containing all or part of the following:  topographic features, hazards and obstructions, navigation aids, navigation routes, designated airspace, and airports.

AERONAUTICAL CHART [ICAO]
A representation of a portion of the earth, its culture and relief, specifically designated to meet the requirements of air navigation.

AERONAUTICAL DECISION-MAKING (ADM)
A systematic approach to the mental process used by aircraft pilots to consistently determine the best course of action in response to a given set of circumstances.

AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION MANUAL (AIM)
A primary FAA publication whose purpose is to instruct airmen about operating in the National Airspace System of the U.S. It provides basic flight information, ATC Procedures and general instructional information concerning health, medical facts, factors affecting flight safety, accident and hazard reporting, and types of aeronautical charts and their use.

AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION PUBLICATION (AIP) [ICAO]
A publication issued by or with the authority of a State and containing aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation.

AERONAUTICS
The branch of science that deals with flight and with the operations of all types of aircraft.

AEROSTAT
A device supported in the air by displacing more than its own weight of air.

AFFECTIVE DOMAIN
A grouping of levels of learning associated with a person’s attitudes, personal beliefs, and values which range from receiving through responding, valuing, and organization to characterization.

AFFIRMATIVE
Yes. AFIS (See AUTOMATIC FLIGHT INFORMATION SERVICE - ALASKA FSSs ONLY.)

AFIS
(See AUTOMATIC FLIGHT INFORMATION SERVICE _ ALASKA FSSs ONLY.)

AFM
See aircraft flight manual.

AFP
(See AIRSPACE FLOW PROGRAM.)

AFSS
See automated flight service station.

AGL
Above ground level.

AGL ALTITUDE
Altitude expressed in feet measured above ground level.

AGL PILOT BRIEFING
A service provided by the FSS to assist pilots in flight planning. Briefing items may include weather information, NOTAMS, military activities, flow control information, and other items as requested. (Refer to AIM.)

AGL ROGER
I have received all of your last transmission. It should not be used to answer a question requiring a yes or a no answer. (See AFFIRMATIVE.) (See NEGATIVE.)

AGONIC LINE
A line along which there is no magnetic variation.

AILERONS
Primary flight control surfaces mounted on the trailing edge of an airplane wing, near the tip. Ailerons control roll about the longitudinal axis.

AIM
(See AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION MANUAL.)

AIP [ICAO]
(See ICAO term AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION PUBLICATION.)

AIR CARRIER DISTRICT OFFICE
An FAA field office serving an assigned geographical area, staffed with Flight Standards personnel serving the aviation industry and the general public on matters related to the certification and operation of scheduled air carriers and other large aircraft operations.

AIR DATA COMPUTER (ADC)
An aircraft computer that receives and processes pitot pressure, static pressure, and temperature to calculate very precise altitude, indicated airspeed, true airspeed, and air temperature.

AIR DEFENSE EMERGENCY
A military emergency condition declared by a designated authority. This condition exists when an attack upon the continental U.S., Alaska, Canada, or U.S. installations in Greenland by hostile aircraft or missiles is considered probable, is imminent, or is taking place. (Refer to AIM.)

AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE (ADIZ)
The area of airspace over land or water, extending upward from the surface, within which the ready identification, the location, and the control of aircraft are required in the interest of national security. a. Domestic Air Defense Identification Zone. An ADIZ within the United States along an international boundary of the United States. b. Coastal Air Defense Identification Zone. An ADIZ over the coastal waters of the United States. c. Distant Early Warning Identification Zone (DEWIZ). An ADIZ over the coastal waters of the State of Alaska. d. Land-Based Air Defense Identification Zone. An ADIZ over U.S. metropolitan areas, which is activated and deactivated as needed, with dimensions, activation dates and other relevant information disseminated via NOTAM. Note: ADIZ locations and operating and flight plan requirements for civil aircraft operations are specified in 14 CFR Part 99. (Refer to AIM.)

AIR DENSITY
The density of the air in terms of mass per unit volume. Dense air has more molecules per unit volume than less dense air. The density of air decreases with altitude above the surface of the earth and with increasing temperature.

AIR MASS
An extensive body of air having fairly uniform properties of temperature and moisture.

AIR NAVIGATION FACILITY
Any facility used in, available for use in, or designed for use in, aid of air navigation, including landing areas, lights, any apparatus or equipment for disseminating weather information, for signaling, for radio-directional finding, or for radio or other electrical communication, and any other structure or mechanism having a similar purpose for guiding or controlling flight in the air or the landing and takeoff of aircraft. (See NAVIGATIONAL AID.)

AIR ROUTE SURVEILLANCE RADAR
Air route traffic control center (ARTCC) radar used primarily to detect and display an aircraft’s position while en route between terminal areas. The ARSR enables controllers to provide radar air traffic control service when aircraft are within the ARSR coverage. In some instances, ARSR may enable an ARTCC to provide terminal radar services similar to but usually more limited than those provided by a radar approach control.

AIR ROUTE SURVEILLANCE RADAR (ARSR)
Air route traffic control center (ARTCC) radar used primarily to detect and display an aircraft’s position while en route between terminal areas.


AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTER
A facility established to provide air traffic control service to aircraft operating on IFR flight plans within controlled airspace and principally during the en route phase of flight. When equipment capabilities and controller workload permit, certain advisory/assistance services may be provided to VFR aircraft. (See EN ROUTE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICES.) (Refer to AIM.)

AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTER (ARTCC)
Provides ATC service to aircraft operating on IFR flight plans within controlled airspace and principally during the en route phase of flight.

AIR TAXI
Used to describe a helicopter/VTOL aircraft movement conducted above the surface but normally not above 100 feet AGL. The aircraft may proceed either via hover taxi or flight at speeds more than 20 knots. The pilot is solely responsible for selecting a safe airspeed/altitude for the operation being conducted. (See HOVER TAXI.) (Refer to AIM.)

AIR TRAFFIC
Aircraft operating in the air or on an airport surface, exclusive of loading ramps and parking areas. (See ICAO term AIR TRAFFIC.)

AIR TRAFFIC [ICAO]
All aircraft in flight or operating on the maneuvering area of an aerodrome.

AIR TRAFFIC CLEARANCE
An authorization by air traffic control for the purpose of preventing collision between known aircraft, for an aircraft to proceed under specified traffic conditions within controlled airspace. The pilot-in-command of an aircraft may not deviate from the provisions of a visual flight rules (VFR) or instrument flight rules (IFR) air traffic clearance except in an emergency or unless an amended clearance has been obtained. Additionally, the pilot may request a different clearance from that which has been issued by air traffic control (ATC) if information available to the pilot makes another course of action more practicable or if aircraft equipment limitations or company procedures forbid compliance with the clearance issued. Pilots may also request clarification or amendment, as appropriate, any time a clearance is not fully understood, or considered unacceptable because of safety of flight. Controllers should, in such instances and to the extent of operational practicality and safety, honor the pilot’s request. 14 CFR Part 91.3(a) states: “The pilot in command of an aircraft is directly responsible for, and is the final authority as to, the operation of that aircraft.” THE PILOT IS RESPONSIBLE TO REQUEST AN AMENDED CLEARANCE if ATC issues a clearance that would cause a pilot to deviate from a rule or regulation, or in the pilot’s opinion, would place the aircraft in jeopardy. (See ATC INSTRUCTIONS.) (See ICAO term AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL CLEARANCE.)

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
A service operated by appropriate authority to promote the safe, orderly and expeditious flow of air traffic. (See ICAO term AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE.)

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC)
A service provided by the FAA to promote the safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic.

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL CLEARANCE [ICAO]
Authorization for an aircraft to proceed under conditions specified by an air traffic control unit. Note 1: For convenience, the term air traffic control clearance is frequently abbreviated to clearance when used in appropriate contexts. Note 2: The abbreviated term clearance may be prefixed by the words taxi, takeoff, departure, en route, approach or landing to indicate the particular portion of flight to which the air traffic control clearance relates.
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL RADAR BEACON SYSTEM (ATCRBS)
Sometimes called secondary surveillance radar (SSR), which utilizes a transponder in the aircraft. The ground equipment is an interrogating unit, in which the beacon antenna is mounted so it rotates with the surveillance antenna. The interrogating unit transmits a coded pulse sequence that actuates the aircraft transponder. The transponder answers the coded sequence by transmitting a preselected coded sequence back to the ground equipment, providing a strong return signal and positive aircraft identification, as well as other special data.

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE
(See AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL.)

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE [ICAO]
A service provided for the purpose of: a. Preventing collisions: 1. Between aircraft; and 2. On the maneuvering area between aircraft and obstructions. b. Expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic.

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SPECIALIST
A person authorized to provide air traffic control service. (See AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL.) (See FLIGHT SERVICE STATION.) (See ICAO term CONTROLLER.)

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM COMMAND CENTER (ATCSCC)
An Air Traffic Tactical Operations facility responsible for monitoring and managing the flow of air traffic throughout the NAS, producing a safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of traffic while minimizing delays. The following functions are located at the ATCSCC: a. Central Altitude Reservation Function (CARF). Responsible for coordinating, planning, and approving special user requirements under the Altitude Reservation (ALTRV) concept. (See ALTITUDE RESERVATION.) b. Airport Reservation Office (ARO). Responsible for approving IFR flights at designated high density traffic airports (John F. Kennedy, LaGuardia, and Ronald Reagan Washington National) during specified hours. (Refer to 14 CFR Part 93.) (Refer to AIRPORT/FACILITY DIRECTORY.)  U.S. Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) Office. Responsible for collecting, maintaining, and distributing NOTAMs for the U.S. civilian and military, as well as international aviation communities. (See NOTICE TO AIRMEN.) d. Weather Unit. Monitor all aspects of weather for the U.S. that might affect aviation including cloud cover, visibility, winds, precipitation, thunderstorms, icing, turbulence, and more. Provide forecasts based on observations and on discussions with meteorologists from various National Weather Service offices, FAA facilities, airlines, and private weather services.

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM COMMAND CENTER (ATCSCC)
An Air Traffic Tactical Operations facility responsible for monitoring and managing the flow of air traffic throughout the NAS, producing a safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of traffic -while minimizing delays. The following functions are located at the ATCSCC: a. Central Altitude Reservation Function (CARF). Responsible for coordinating, planning, and approving special user requirements under the Altitude Reservation (ALTRV) concept. (See ALTITUDE RESERVATION.) b. Airport Reservation Office (ARO). Responsible for approving IFR flights at designated high density traffic airports (John F. Kennedy, LaGuardia, and Ronald Reagan Washington National) during specified hours. (Refer to 14 CFR Part 93.) (Refer to AIRPORT/FACILITY DIRECTORY.) Pilot/Controller Glossary 7/24/14 PCG A_6 c. U.S. Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) Office. Responsible for collecting, maintaining, and distributing NOTAMs for the U.S. civilian and military, as well as international aviation communities. (See NOTICE TO AIRMEN.) d. Weather Unit. Monitor all aspects of weather for the U.S. that might affect aviation including cloud cover, visibility, winds, precipitation, thunderstorms, icing, turbulence, and more. Provide forecasts based on observations and on discussions with meteorologists from various National Weather Service offices, FAA facilities, airlines, and private weather services.

AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE
A generic term meaning: a. Flight Information Service. b. Alerting Service. c. Air Traffic Advisory Service. d. Air Traffic Control Service: 1. Area Control Service, 2. Approach Control Service, or 3. Airport Control Service.
AIRBORNE
An aircraft is considered airborne when all parts of the aircraft are off the ground.

AIRBORNE DELAY
Amount of delay to be encountered in airborne holding.

AIRCRAFT
Device(s) that are used or intended to be used for flight in the air, and when used in air traffic control terminology, may include the flight crew. (See ICAO term AIRCRAFT.)

AIRCRAFT [ICAO]
Any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth’s surface.

AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT
An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft that takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and all such persons have disembarked, and in which any person suffers death or serious injury or in which the aircraft receives substantial damage. (NTSB 830.2)

AIRCRAFT ALTITUDE
The actual height above sea level at which the aircraft is flying.

AIRCRAFT APPROACH CATEGORY
A grouping of aircraft based on a speed of 1.3 times the stall speed in the landing configuration at maximum gross landing weight. An aircraft must fit in only one category. If it is necessary to maneuver at speeds in excess of the upper limit of a speed range for a category, the minimums for the category for that speed must be used. For example, an aircraft which falls in Category A, but is circling to land at a speed in excess of 91 knots, must use the approach Category B minimums when circling to land. The categories are as follows: a. Category A- Speed less than 91 knots. b. Category B- Speed 91 knots or more but less than 121 knots. c. Category C- Speed 121 knots or more but less than 141 knots. d. Category D- Speed 141 knots or more but less than 166 knots. e. Category E- Speed 166 knots or more. (Refer to 14 CFR Part 97.)

AIRCRAFT CATEGORIES
(1) As used with respect to the certification, ratings, privileges, and limitations of airmen, means a broad classification of aircraft. Examples include: powered parachute, airplane, rotorcraft, glider, lighter-than air, and weight-shift control. (2) As used with respect to the certification of aircraft, means a grouping of aircraft based upon intended use or operating limitations. Examples include: transport, normal, utility, acrobatic, limited, restricted, and provisional.

AIRCRAFT CHECKOUTS
An instructional program designed to familiarize and qualify a pilot to act as pilot in command of a particular aircraft type.

AIRCRAFT CLASSES
For the purposes of Wake Turbulence Separation Minima, ATC classifies aircraft as Heavy, Large, and Small as follows: a. Heavy- Aircraft capable of takeoff weights of 300,000 pounds or more whether or not they are operating at this weight during a particular phase of flight. b. Large- Aircraft of more than 41,000 pounds, maximum certificated takeoff weight, up to but not including 300,000 pounds. c. Small- Aircraft of 41,000 pounds or less maximum certificated takeoff weight. (Refer to AIM.)

AIRCRAFT CONFLICT
Predicted conflict, within URET, of two aircraft, or between aircraft and airspace. A Red alert is used for conflicts when the predicted minimum separation is 5 nautical miles or less. A Yellow alert is used when the predicted minimum separation is between 5 and approximately 12 nautical miles. A Blue alert is used for conflicts between an aircraft and predefined airspace. (See USER REQUEST EVALUATION TOOL.)

AIRCRAFT CONFLICT ALERT
A safety alert issued by ATC to aircraft under their control if ATC is aware of an aircraft that is not under their control at an altitude which, in the controllers judgment, places both aircraft in unsafe proximity to each other. With the alert, ATC will offer the pilot an alternate course of action when feasible; e.g., Traffic Alert, advise you turn right heading zero niner zero or climb to eight thousand immediately. Note: The issuance of a safety alert is contingent upon the capability of the controller to have an awareness of an unsafe condition. The course of action provided will be predicated on other traffic under ATC control. Once the alert is issued, it is solely the pilots prerogative to determine what course of action, if any, he/she will take.

AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL (AFM)
Also called the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH), a document developed by the aircraft manufacturer and approved by the FAA. It is specific to a particular make and model aircraft by a serial number, and contains operating procedures and limitations.

AIRCRAFT LIST (ACL)
A view available with URET that lists aircraft currently in or predicted to be in a particular sector’s airspace. The view contains textual flight data information in line format and may be sorted into various orders based on the specific needs of the sector team. (See USER REQUEST EVALUATION TOOL.)

AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS (AOI)
An alternative to the approved term, Pilot's Operating Handbook.

AIRCRAFT PITCH
When referenced to an aircraft, it is the movement about its lateral, or pitch axis. Movement of the cyclic forward or aft causes the nose of the helicopter or gyroplane to pitch up or down.

AIRCRAFT ROLL
Is the movement of the aircraft about its longitudinal axis. Movement of the cyclic right or left causes the helicopter or gyroplane to tilt in that direction.

AIRCRAFT SURGE LAUNCH AND RECOVERY
Procedures used at USAF bases to provide increased launch and recovery rates in instrument flight rules conditions. ASLAR is based on: a. Reduced separation between aircraft which is based on time or distance. Standard arrival separation applies between participants including multiple flights until the DRAG point. The DRAG point is a published location on an ASLAR approach where aircraft landing second in a formation slows to a predetermined airspeed. The DRAG point is the reference point at which MARSA applies as expanding elements effect separation within a flight or between subsequent participating flights. b. ASLAR procedures shall be covered in a Letter of Agreement between the responsible USAF military ATC facility and the concerned Federal Aviation Administration facility. Initial Approach Fix spacing requirements are normally addressed as a minimum.

AIRFOIL
Any surface, such as a wing or propeller, which provides aerodynamic force when it interacts with a moving stream of air.

AIRMANSHIP
A sound acquaintance with the principles of flight, the ability to operate an airplane with competence and precision both on the ground and in the air, and the exercise of sound judgment that results in optimal operational safety and efficiency.

AIRMANSHIP SKILLS
The skills of coordination, timing, control touch, and speed sense in addition to the motor skills required to fly an aircraft.

AIRMEN’S METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION
(See AIRMET.)

AIRMET
In-flight weather advisories issued only to amend the area forecast concerning weather phenomena which are of operational interest to all aircraft and potentially hazardous to aircraft having limited capability because of lack of equipment, instrumentation, or pilot qualifications. AIRMETs concern weather of less severity than that covered by SIGMETs or Convective SIGMETs. AIRMETs cover moderate icing, moderate turbulence, sustained winds of 30 knots or more at the surface, widespread areas of ceilings less than 1,000 feet and/or visibility less than 3 miles, and extensive mountain obscurement. (See AWW.) (See CONVECTIVE SIGMET.) (See CWA.) (See SIGMET.) (Refer to AIM.)

AIRPLANE
An engine-driven, fixed-wing aircraft heavier than air that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of air against its wings.

AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL (AFM)
A document developed by the airplane manufacturer and approved by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). It is specific to a particular make and model airplane by serial number and it contains operating procedures and limitations.

AIRPLANE OWNER/INFORMATION MANUAL
A document developed by the airplane manufacturer containing general information about the make and model of an airplane. The airplane owner’s manual is not FAA approved and is not specific to a particular serial numbered airplane. This manual is not kept current, and therefore cannot be substituted for the AFM/POH.

AIRPORT
An area on land or water that is used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of aircraft and includes its buildings and facilities, if any.



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